Guide to Types of Cancer, Treatment Options & Prevention

Cancer is the leading cause of death around the globe and the number of new cancer cases is expected to increase by 22 million within the next 20 years, according to the National Cancer Institute. The American Cancer Society reports 2 in every 3 people diagnosed with cancer every day survive at least five years. If you are a loved one has been diagnosed with cancer, it’s important to educate yourself about what to expect and explore different treatment options.

“A Cancer Diagnosis Can Change Your Life”

Common Types of Cancer

The most common types of cancer are: 

  • Breast Cancer
  • Lung and Bronchus Cancer
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Colon and Rectum Cancer
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Melanoma
  • Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Kidney and Renal Pelvis Cancer
  • Leukemia
  • Endometrial Cancer
  • Pancreatic Cancer

What Causes Cancer?

Cancer can be traced to several causes. The most common causes include: 

  • Genetics - some types of cancer run in families
  • Tobacco use - cigarette, cigar and smokeless tobacco use can increase the risk of cancer
  • Diet - an unhealthy diet, alcohol use and carrying excess weight can increase the risk of certain types of cancer and other diseases
  • UV exposure - excessive sun exposure and UV damage can cause cancer
  • Infections - certain infections may increase cancer risk
  • Exposure to chemicals and radiation - exposure to certain levels of radiation can increase the risk of cancer
  • Exposure to pollutants and toxins - toxins in the workplace or home can cause certain types of cancer

“Prevent Cancer by Maintaining a Healthy Lifestyle”

Cancer Treatment Options

After a diagnosis, the doctor will determine which treatment will be effective for slowing down development of cancer cells and destroying cancer cells completely. Certain drugs can help to shrink a tumor or boost the immune system to destroy cancer cells. Radiation treatments can kill cancer cells immediately without damaging surrounding tissues. Surgery may be necessary in more advanced cases. 

Cancer treatment options include: 

  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted therapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Radiation therapy
  • Hormone therapy
  • Surgery
  • Active surveillance 

When reviewing your options for treatment, it’s important to consider the potential short- and long-term side effects of different therapies, the likelihood that the cancer will return, and how the treatment plan you choose will affect your quality of life.

Cancer Prevention Tips

Some people are genetically predisposed to developing cancer but there are some ways to prevent cancer and disease. Eating a healthy diet, getting regular health screenings and watching for cancer symptoms are a few preventive measures. The Mayo Clinic recommends

  • Eliminating tobacco usage
  • Drinking alcohol in moderation
  • Taking steps to avoid obesity
  • Limited consumption of processed meats
  • Maintaining a healthy weight
  • Staying physically active
  • Protecting yourself from sun exposure
  • Getting immunized
  • Practicing safe sex
  • Refraining from sharing needles
  • Getting necessary medical care 

Explore our library of content to learn more about cancer prevention, the latest treatment options, and cancer news.

American Cancer Society - Learn About Cancer
National Cancer Institute - Cancer Statistics
American Society of Clinical Oncology - Making Decisions About Cancer Treatment


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